This dissertation demonsrates the correlation between the marginalization of Minahasan culture, mapalus, and the strengthening of hierarchy in the Christian Evangelical Church in Minahasa (Gereja Masehi Injili di Minahasa/GMIM). I argue that the marginalization of mapalus in revision of GMIM Church Order strengthens the hierarchy in GMIM Church Order 2007 and the 2012 Addendum. I offer an ecclesiology of friendship, which is missional, relational, and incarnational, to provide a non-hierarchical model of being church that is relevant for GMIM.
Historically, the hierarchical system was inherited from the long relationship between GMIM and the Indonesian Protestant Church (Gereja Protestan Indonesia/GPI), the state-church that was arranged by regulation of the state. GPI complied to the state, therefore relation between GPI and the state is hierarchical relation. Although in every revision of the church order, the hierarchy is minimized, however it become more explicit in the Church Order 2007 and Addendum 2012. What are the factors that strengthen the hierarchy in the Church Order 2007 and the 2012 Addendum?
Researching through data collection from written documents and interviews, I found that, in general, the bible and tradition are used as the dominant sources of theology in revising the church order. The local culture, in this case mapalus has never been used as a source of theology. Minahasan people are proud of their own culture of mapalus (working cooperatively) that make them an egalitarian society. But they almost do not realize the negative effect of the value of the tona‟as in a common life. The value of tona‟as can ruin the collectivity, especially when someone tries to reach the highest position without respecting the value of collectivity/togetherness. This practice is called baku cungkel (to cut one‟s own position). Therefore, neglecting mapalus culture makes the hierarchy strengthened in Church Order 2007 and Addendum 2012.
The mapalus culture can be used as a basis in constructing non-hierarchy ecclesiology. But there is a need to deconstruct so as not to reach individual objective that will spoil the collectivity. Personal excellence should be used for collectivity itself. Bringing into dialogue the value of mapalus and the Trinity, this dissertation provides a model of dialogue between culture and theology for constructing an ecclesiology of friendship. The ecclesiology friendship is the basic principle to reveal the hierarchy in Church Order 2007 and Addendum 2012. It is also an expression of the church‟s love to the Almighty God with a commitment to become a friend for the people, the wider society, and the world.
|Source||1700222; LOUPATTY, Vera;|
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